The profit and loss account is a way to look at the past performance of your company. Its different to a balance sheet which is a snapshot of the present, and the cash flow forecast which is a look into the future. All profit and loss statements have these important categories;
What is a Recession
A recession involves at least two consecutive quarters of negative real GDP. GDP is one of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country’s economy. It represents the total value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period. USA, China, Japan, Germany & the UK have the largest GDP’s around the world as of 2016. The GDP calculation is a measure of consumer spending + business investment + government spending + net exports.
History of Recession
The international Monetary Fund defines a global recession as a decline in annual per-capita real World GDP. Since WW2 there were only 4 global recessions. In (1975, 1982, 1991 & 2009), all of them lasting about a year. In 1970 and 1998 there was annual GDP growth rate of 3% or less which can also be considered as a recession. It is difficult to define, due to the GDP growth of developed and developing countries being so different. The IMF estimates that global recessions occur over a cycle lasting around 8-10 years.
Where are we now
Global GDP is estimated to have grown by 3.09% in 2015 and looks to grow to 3.16% in 2016 with recovery being mainly driven by developing economies. The US is experiencing small growth in GDP at around 1.2% per quarter and China is experiencing growth at around the 6.5% per quarter level. The real worry looks to be Japan who are the 3rd largest economy. After seeing a 0.02% expansion in the first quarter of 2016 and with their economy relying heavily on QE, it seems like it’s just a matter of time until their spiral hits rock bottom. That could have a massive impact on the worlds economic status.
At some point in the near future we will enter another recession. Factors such as Brexit, the Japanese debt crisis, curtailing consumer spending and the ridiculous US presidential election could all be worthy catalysts to send the world back into near negative economic growth. The housing bubble in the UK has so far remained glossy, but with the amount of new building projects in London alone at a super high level prices will be coming down due to over saturation of the market. No one knows when any of this will happen but it is inevitable. You just have to ensure your skills are sharpened so your job is secure and if you can save money for that moment when the price of everything drops you can find yourself a bargain.
What is a stress test in banking
A stress test in the land of finance is an analysis or simulation designed to determine the ability a financial instrument has to deal with an economic crisis. Usually projections are based on the best case scenarios. We’ve all seen Dragons Den for example, where the pitcher is asked about yearly projections, Yr1,2,3. These estimates are based on hitting targets, growing workforce & consistent economy etc. In the lucrative world of banking the following is usually considered in a stress test;
The most luxurious brand in the world
The Birth of LVMH
Luxurious international conglomerate LVMH comprises of 60 brands including Moet & Louis Vuitton. The company’s chairman and CEO is Bernard Arnault, born 5 March 1949. Arnault is a French business magnate and art collector who’s estimated wealth is said to be at $37bn. After graduating in engineering in 1971 he joined his father’s civil engineering company Ferret-Savinel. Through well timed liquidation & acquisition Arnault swooped from construction to luxury goods and in under a decade he became the first shareholder of LVMH which is now the world leader in luxury brands
LVMH is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate some of who’s subsidiaries are;
Wines and spirits – Cahteau Yquem, Hennessy, Moet, Belvedere, Krug & Dom Perignon.
Fashion – Christian Dior, Louis Vuitton, Berluti, Fendi, Givenchy, Donna Karan & Marc Jacobs.
Other brands – Nude, Fresh, Guerlain, Fred, Hublot, TAG Heuer, Zenith & Bvlgari.
Culture & Performance
LVMH was formed by the merger of fashion house Louis Vuitton and Moet Hennessey in 1987. The company operates in over 70 countries and employs 125,000 people. There are 3,860 stores worldwide and the reach in Asia especially is growing significant pace. There is a historic energy that flows through the company and its long standing past will contribute to its vivacious future. They utilise the benefits of the digital era and have found a way to ensure their legendary craft appeals to generations to come. Their support for iconic and popular events has helped them to continually develop contemporary branding concepts. Personally, I find the choice of celebrity endorsements sublime. The company share price has been steadily rising for nearly ten years, and this dividend paying stock shows no signs of slowing down. LVMH truly epitomises what a luxury brand should be.
Their Christian Dior celebrity choices are of the highest quality in entertainment.
I used to believe in the concept of money. I put my trust in the crisp pink fifties, coke laced twenties, and bacteria infested ten pound notes until I heard about fiat currency.
Definition of fiat currency;
‘Inconvertible paper money made legal by government decree’